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  • br Acknowledgements M M M

    2023-11-18


    Acknowledgements M.M.M. is the William Dow Lovett Professor of Neurology and is supported by grants from the Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research, the American Parkinson Disease Association, the New Jersey Health Foundation/Nicholson Foundation, and by the National Institutes of Health [AT006868, NS073994, NS096032, and R01NS101134].
    The ability of Flubendazole to react adequately to different stress signals is based on the interaction of intracellular signaling pathways. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways play important roles in cell response to various stimuli and regulate death and survival in all eukaryotic cells. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is a MAP3K5 that responds to a plethora of stress-inducing signals, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, lipopolysaccharide etc. Increased activity of ASK1 is associated with several pathologies, including neurodegenerative,, , , cardiovascular,, , , liver diseases, and cancer., Therefore, inhibitors of ASK1 may become important compounds for pharmaceutical application. To date, there are only several classes of ASK1 inhibitors were reported in scientific literature., , , , , , , , Thus, the search for novel selective ASK1 inhibitors is of great interest. ASK1 small-molecule inhibitors from different chemical classes have similar binding modes in the enzyme’s active site. It is possible to sum up these structural data into a general conception by using methods of pharmacophore modeling. There are two approaches for pharmacophore construction—receptor-based methods that allow building pharmacophore models based on the interactions of ligands with receptors, and ligand-based methods allowing generation of pharmacophore models based on the training sets of active compounds. PharmaGist is a pharmacophore model generation program which uses training sets. This software is based on the deterministic pharmacophore detection method. The models can be built for compounds with undetermined binding modes. In addition, PharmaGist can use available structural information on ligand-receptor interactions. The compounds with known conformations in which they interact with enzyme are usually selected as pivots and other ligands aligned versus them. Individual contribution of each ligand into pharmacophore feature is evaluated. The models give information concerning not only spatial position of pharmacophore feature but also its weight indicating importance of this feature for interaction with enzyme active site.
    Introduction Optic neuritis is inflammation of the optic nerve and is the most common type of optic neuropathy. Patients usually present with an acute reduction of visual acuity, orbital pain exacerbated by eye movements, dyschromatopsia, and an afferent papillary defect, with or without swelling of the optic nerve head. Optic neuritis is the initial presentation in approximately 20% of multiple sclerosis (MS) cases and 30–70% of MS patients develop optic neuritis during the course of their disease [5], [22]. Since optic neuritis can cause severe visual loss, especially in the optic-spinal form of MS or neuromyelitis optica [13], [20], and this loss is irreversible currently, it draws much attention to finding a treatment that will restore the visual function. Valproic acid (VPA) is a short-chain fatty acid and is used worldwide clinically for treatment of epilepsy, mood disorders, migraines and neuropathic pain [4], [11], [17], [27]. The pharmacological action of VPA involves multiple mechanisms including those that affect intracellular signal transduction pathways. For example, VPA may modulate enzymatic activities such as extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt-1, and glycogen synthase kinase 3β, as well as histone deacetylase (HDAC) [6], [9], [23], [25]. Recently, the concept that VPA exerts neuroprotective effects has emerged [2], [3], [15], [16], [29] and in addition, VPA may ameliorate inflammation of the spinal cord in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS, by suppressing the activation of T cells [18].