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  • br Experimental Procedures br Acknowledgments br Introductio

    2023-11-22


    Experimental Procedures
    Acknowledgments
    Introduction Synapses are fundamental units for efficient communication between neurons and their target cells. Despite significant progress in understanding the structure of matured synapses, less is known about the mechanisms by which neurotransmitter receptors are targeted to and anchored at postsynaptic regions (Sanes and Lichtman, 2001, Waites et al., 2005). Increasing evidence suggests that they are mobile, and exchanges occur continually between synaptic and extrasynaptic pools (Akaaboune et al., 1999). This process is regulated by proteins that interact directly with the receptors or indirectly via adaptor proteins. Several such proteins have been identified, including transmembrane AMPAR regulatory proteins (TARPs) for AMPA receptors, PSD-95 for NMDA receptors, homer for mGlu receptors, and gephyrin for GABA receptors (Collingridge et al., 2004, Elias et al., 2006, Waites et al., 2005). Due to easy accessibility and peripheral location, the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) has served as an informative model for synaptogenesis (Sanes and Lichtman, 2001). Synaptic concentration of AChRs is generated by complex interactions between motoneuron terminals and skeletal muscles, resulting in AChR aggregation and local synthesis (Fu et al., 2008, Li et al., 2008, Sanes and Lichtman, 2001, Schaeffer et al., 2001). Neural agrin clusters AChRs via activating the transmembrane tyrosine kinase MuSK (DeChiara et al., 1996, Gautam et al., 1996, Glass et al., 1996, Herbst and Burden, 2000, McMahan et al., 1992, Zhou et al., 1999), whereas ACh is thought to disassemble receptor clusters in nonsynaptic areas via activating 5-moUTP (Brandon et al., 2003, Lin et al., 2005, Misgeld et al., 2002). MuSK is also critically involved in the prepatterning of muscles because aneural AChR-rich sites are absent in MuSK knockout mice (Kim and Burden, 2008, Lin et al., 2001). The intracellular pathway downstream of MuSK remains unclear. It is thought to involve the adaptor protein Dok-7 (Okada et al., 2006) and several enzymes, including Src-family kinase (Ferns et al., 1996, Mittaud et al., 2001, Mohamed et al., 2001, Qu and Huganir, 1994, Wallace, 1991), Abl (Finn et al., 2003), geranylgeranyl transferase I (GGT) (Luo et al., 2003), GTPases of the Rho family (Weston et al., 2000, Weston et al., 2003), and Pak1, a serine/threonine kinase that is activated by Rho GTPases (Luo et al., 2002). Rapsyn is a key cytoplasmic protein in concentrating AChRs at the NMJ (Sanes and Lichtman, 2001). Rapsyn−/− mice lack differentiated NMJs and fail to form AChR clusters (Gautam et al., 1995). Rapsyn interacts with the AChR, which is increased by agrin and correlates with cytoskeletal linkage of the AChR (Moransard et al., 2003). Recent evidence suggests that rapsyn regulates AChR clustering by inhibiting the activation of Cdk5 (Chen et al., 2007) and by associating with the β-catenin/α-catenin complex (Zhang et al., 2007). Interestingly, rapsyn turns over rapidly, with a half-life of one to several hours in muscle cells (Bruneau and Akaaboune, 2007, Frail et al., 1989). How the stability of rapsyn is regulated and contributes to AChR clustering and NMJ formation remains unclear. To study the mechanisms of AChR clustering, we sought to identify proteins that became associated with aggregated surface AChRs in intact muscle cells using a differential proteomic approach. We identified HSP90β, a molecular chaperone implicated in stability and function of client proteins (Pearl and Prodromou, 2006). Its association with surface AChRs was via direct interaction with rapsyn and was increased by agrin. We explored the consequences of inhibiting HSP90β activity or expression and of disrupting its interaction with rapsyn. Results of these experiments indicate a role of HSP90β in NMJ development by regulating rapsyn turnover and subsequent AChR cluster formation and maintenance.