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  • The changes in the chemokine receptors CCR and CXCR in

    2019-09-27

    The changes in the chemokine receptors CCR-5 and CXCR-4 in women and men with PTSD are completely different. In the group of women with PTSD alone the level of this coelenterazine increased six times, whereas, in women with APD and PTSD, the level of the receptor CCR-5 was eight times higher than in the control group. Similarly, in men diagnosed only with PTSD, the level of the receptor CCR-5 was three times higher versus the control group. The determined level of that receptor was even higher for men in whom PTSD was accompanied by APD. In this group, the level of the receptor CCR-5 was four times higher than in the control group. In this study, the level of another receptor, CXCR-4, was also determined in representatives of both sexes. It was found that in women with PTSD, regardless of whether it was accompanied by APD or not, the level of that receptor was twice as high as in the control group. The results in the group of men were completely different. Regardless of whether PTSD in men was accompanied by APD or not, no statistically significant differences were found for the receptor CXCR-4 levels in the studied groups, versus the control group. No statistically significant difference was observed in the levels of the chemokine receptors CCR-5 and CXCR-4 either in the group of women or men with APD, excluding PTSD, versus the control group. Nevertheless, an increase in the levels of the chemokine receptors CCR-5 was detected in the group of women and men with APD and PTSD as compared with the group of women and men suffering only from AD. The group of women was observed with a sixfold increase and the group of men with a twofold increase. With regards to the chemokine receptors CXCR-4, a double increase in their levels was recorded in the group of women with APD concurrent with PTSD as compared with the group of women with APD, and with PTSD ruled out. No statistically significant difference was observed, though, between men with APD and PTSD versus men with APD. The statistical assessment also covered changes in the levels of the studied chemokines in women versus men. The analyses of the obtained values indicated statistically significant differences in the chemokine levels between women and men diagnosed with PTSD and APD. In the group of subjects with PTSD and APD, the levels of chemokines CCL-5 and SDF-1 were higher in the group of women versus men. These differences were statistically significant, with the level of significance p=0.0012 for CCL-5 and p=0.0031 for SDF-1. Similarly, in the subjects with only PTSD, higher levels of chemokines CCL-5 and SDF-1 were found in women versus men. In the case of women and men diagnosed with APD, no increase in the IL-6 level was found as compared with the control group. However, such an increase, which was double, was observed both in the group of women and men with APD and PTSD versus the group of women and men suffering from APD alone. This increase was statistically significant.
    Discussion Posttraumatic stress disorders are psychical disorders related to chronic stress resulting from a previous traumatic experience [5]. Considering the immune system involvement in the PTSD development, the authors of this paper decided that it would be worthwhile to determine levels of two chemokines, CCL-5 and SDF-1, and their corresponding receptors, CCR-5 and CXCR-4, as well as the IL-6 level. Determining plasma levels of these parameters in patients with PTSD and the avoidant personality represents observation of the effect of the chronic stress and personality disorder on the inflammatory activation of the immune system [21]. In the presented paper, the authors found increased levels of the chemokine CCL-5 in patients with PTSD and APD in comparison to the control group and in patients with PTSD without concurrent APD. This result indicates participation of this chemokine in differentiation of people with two chronic stress factors (PTSD and APD) versus people without APD. The highest increase in CCL-5 was observed in women with PTSD and APD. This can indicate estrogens participation in the chemokine activation process [22]. In studies conducted so far on changes in the levels of chemokines in patients with PTSD, the levels of numerous interleukins were measured, however, the chemokine CCL-5 was not one of them. Zhou et al. [23], in their study concerning presence of this disorder in war veterans, screened levels of many cytokines, including: interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-10 (IL-10), interleukin-13 (IL-13), interleukin-17 (IL-17), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interferon gamma induced protein-10 (IP-10) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). However, these authors did not analyze subjects’ sex or presence coelenterazine of the personality disorder as factors that can influence inflammation. Similar results were obtained by Gola et al. [24], who found increased levels of IL-6, interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-10 (IL-10), TNF-γ, and chemokines MCP-1 in patients with PTSD versus the control group. However, this research was based on a small study group of 35 subjects and a control group of 30 people. Furthermore, studied patients did not suffer from concurrent personality disorder. Moreover, in determination of these cytokines no comparisons were made between women and men.